EarthVision So

Dynamic Graphics is committed to responding to the challenges our clients face in their day-to-day work.

Backed by strong client partnerships, DGI is well positioned to capitalize on the current trend of more intensive high technology application in the petroleum, environmental, and earth-related sciences, ensuring the companys leading role as a geospatial software solutions provider far into the 21st century.

EarthVisiondeveloped by Dynamic Graphics, offers software for 3D model building, analysis, and visualization, with precise 3D models that can be quickly created and updated. Accurate maps and cross-sections, reservoir characterization, and volumetric analysis are made easy. EarthVisions advanced 3D 4D Viewer enables model examination and interrogation in the context of datasets from throughout the asset development team, which serves to improve and simplify quality control, well planning, and communication to management, investors, partners, and other team members.

Using EarthVisions WorkFlow Manager, the model building process is streamlined allowing complex models to be built quickly and easily through a guided, geologically oriented process. Using one-time data entry, the WorkFlow Managers interface provides an intuitive environment, guiding users through modeling fluid contacts, salt domes, diapirs, and complexly faulted structures, and performing time-to-depth conversions.

seamless integration of seismic interpretations in time with your depth model using EarthVisions geo-model-driven velocity and time-to-depth conversion

intermediate horizon creation using true vertical or true stratigraphic thickness (TVT or TST)

fluid contact modeling with the ability to constrain fluids on a fault block basis and/or within a polygon area

property modeling using geometric reconstructive techniques to better represent the true depositional history of strata in faulted reservoirs

property grouping by zone or fault block, and conformal or non-conformal gridding to accurately represent property distributions

contour map, isochore map, and cross-section creation as part of the model building process

Contour maps, isochore maps, and cross-sections derived from EarthVision 3D models provide accurate, easily understood representations of reverse faults, major fault gaps, fault-wedge contours, and other geologic scenarios regardless of complexity. These representations of layer juxtaposition are critical tools in volumetric analysis, fluid migration, and hydrocarbon entrapment analysis.

Rounding out the available tools, and making EarthVision a fully-featured 3D earth modeling and analysis package are access to:

an interactive statistical analysis tool linked with the 3D Viewer

mathematical processing of input and output data models

the Geologic Structure Builder for customizing fault block zones

a multitude of industry import export links

optional modules including the EarthVision Integrated Well Designer, Geoceulluar Gridding, and Geostatistics

Model QC through True Data Integration

With the advanced EarthVision 3D Viewer, model input and output files can be visualized in conjunction with datasets from throughout the asset team, allowing for model examination and interrogation in the full geologic context. Through integration of reservoir knowledge, quality control, well planning, and communication are dramatically improved and simplified.

examination of multiple models and co-located data sets, through the use of multiple model spaces and coordinated viewer windows

direct comparison and validation of fault and horizon interpretations, and easy in-viewer data editing

on the fly cross-sections (along wellpaths or arbitrary lines of traverse) through 3D models, seismic volumes, and cellular grids

integration of non-DGI file types, including ESRI Shapefiles, Paradigm GOCAD objects (e.g., Tsurfs, vertex sets), and USGS digital elevation data

visualization of temporal data, including reservoir simulations and microseismic events

EarthVision Integrated Well Designer

TheEarthVision Integrated Well Designer, an optional module for use with EarthVision, offers quick, robust, easy-to-use well planning for non-expert well planners within the context of geologic, geophysical, and reservoir data. Driven by the strength of the WellArchitect planning engine, the EarthVision Integrated Well Designer combines powerful well planning software with advanced 3D visualization capabilitiesa major step forward for the oil & gas drilling industry.

The EarthVision Integrated Well Designer Offers

calculation with a variety of curves, and automatic display in EarthVisions robust 3D 4D visualization environment

2D and 3D geologic target generation within the context of all the asset teams data

the ability to sidetrack from any well and change the tie-on on-the-fly

display of ellipsoids of uncertainty and drillers targets based on ISCWSA standard tool models

Go from picking targets within the context of reservoir data across the asset team to . . .

a more economical sidetrack . . . in SECONDS.

Many geoscientists and engineers prefer to first create an appropriate well path within their data, rather than simply sending 3D target locations to a professional well planner (inside or outside of their organization). By creating your own well paths, you can effectively answer critical questions:

how exposed is a well to a problem horizon?

is the well path staying within the sweet spot?

is the well too close to the oil-water contact?

how do critical parameters varying along the length of the well?

The EarthVision Integrated Well Designer allows for faster identification and better management of problem areas, shortening the cycle between geosciences and drilling, thereby maximizing returns on drilling investments.

TheEarthVision Cellular Griddingmodule converts an EarthVision structure or property model into a cellular-grid format compatible for input to reservoir upscaling and simulation programs. Using an algorithm optimized for faults, the EarthVision Cellular Gridding program calculates cellular reservoir grids that accurately portray the structure and or property in the original 3D model. The cellular 3D grid then provides the framework for calculating and predicting the flow of fluids within the reservoir. Unlike an EarthVision 3D grid, which has all of its grid lines parallel and orthogonal (thereby usually crossing structural and property features), a cellular grid is created so that its grid lines align to the major structural components of the model such as the faults and horizons.

ijk Stair-Stepped Antithetic Fault (Model Courtesy of BP Amoco).

a quick, easy workflow for generating new geocellular grids in minutes, not days

precise cell modeling to handle complex fault geometries with ease

numerous upscaling options, including arithmetic, geometric, harmonic, and power mean, plus hybrid schema for heterogeneous properties such as permeability

industry-standard export formats including Eclipse, RESCUE, VIP, CMG, GRIDGENR, and more

visualization of inputs and outputs within the familiar 3D Viewer environment

TheEarthVision Geostatisticsmodule provides 2D and 3D statistical methods for computing grid nodes based on 2D or 3D data, and incorporates the algorithms from Stanford Universitys widely-used GSLIB geostatistics software library. Geostatistical models can be calculated conformal or non-conformal to structure, in selected zones and selected fault blocks of advanced structure models built with EarthVisions powerful Geologic Structure Builder.

The Geostatistics module enables extensive pre-gridding data analysis to help optimize variogram model preparation prior to the kriging calculation. Variance grids can be calculated simultaneously with the estimate grid, and the spatial relationships of the data to be kriged can be analyzed using a number of different variograms and variogram maps, such as traditional semivariogram, covariance, correlogram, general relative, pairwise relative, logarithmic, rodogram, and madogram.

The EarthVision Geostatistics module offers a range of kriging algorithms, including:

EarthVision Solution Projects(EVSP), by Dynamic Graphics, offers a data technical assistance service for our customers, both at DGI offices and at customer sites. EVSP projects are performed by EarthVision Project Specialists using our innovative EarthVision three-dimensional geospatial analysis software and optionally, Dynamic Graphics equipment (graphics workstations, full-color printers, digitizers, etc.)

Our current EVSP customer base results from a number of scenarios:

companies who wish to evaluate EarthVision geospatial analysis in a real world context prior to lease or purchase

projects with deadlines too short to allow time for in-house purchase and personnel training

business environments that dictate minimal capital expenditures on hardware/software purchases

firms with intermittent projects requiring geospatial analysis

limited or down-sized customer staff that rules out training in-house personnel or keeping in-house personnel up-to-date on software application techniques

companies who wish to receive valuable real world training without a delay in project completion

businesses that must demonstrate and build demand for this innovative technology internally or with their client base prior to lease or purchase

Deliverables from EVSP projects include volumetric reports, full-color hardcopy (maps, cross sections, fence diagrams, raster images, etc.), reservoir simulator preprocessor grids, photographic slides and prints, real-time interactive models, automated display presentations, live presentations by Dynamic Graphics staff, and Windows Linux-compatible image files. Daily progress reports and project summary reports are also available.

EVSP projects can be performed by Dynamic Graphics personnel at a Dynamic Graphics site or at a site chosen by the customer. EVSP services are typically charged on a time and materials basis. In most cases, labor and a combined hardware software charge comprise about 90% of the cost of a project, with the remainder made up of charges for deliverables, shipping, etc.

A variety of standard data formats can be supplied as input for EVSP processing, such as ASCII analytical lab data, paper plans and contour maps, 2D grids, aerial photographs, 3D arrays, Landmark OpenWorks/SeisWorks projects, ESRI ARC INFO coverages, Autodesk DXF files, LAS log data, Excel spreadsheet data, etc.

For more information about an EVSP project using your data, please contact your local Dynamic Graphics representative.

For this EVSP project, an offshore oil field was analyzed for developing bankable reserves. The field contains 58 zones, 24 producing intervals, normal, reverse, and low-angle thrust faults, and a plunging anticline. Using EarthVision, a petrophysical model of oil saturation using existing field data was generated to model the distribution of hydrocarbons and water conforming to the structures anticlinal shape. The resultant model was used to perform reservoir characterization, to verify remaining reserves, to exploit the field using extended-reach drilling to get at bypassed oil, and to minimize cost risks in planning expensive horizontal wells. EarthVisions interactive well positioning tools were extensively used in the process to avoid drilling into existing wells, to determine positions for maximum production, and to visualize drilling results in real-time. Image of Carpinteria Field, Santa Barbara Channel, California, courtesy of Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc.

EarthVision structural model in thrusted terrain with well data and surface imagery. Model constructed by Vince Smith, Baylor University under the supervision of Dr. Mike Hudec. Subsurface data courtesy of Marathon Oil Company.

Integrated display of seismic volumes and 3D models.

The powerful model-building workflows in EarthVision allow for extremely complex model building. In this example, a highly faulted and deformed area with finely layered stratigraphy has been modeled. The resulting structural model has been upscaled to geocellular space for import to reservoir simulation. Model courtesy of bhpbiliton.

Teapot Dome oil field, displayed in the EarthVision 3D Viewer. Data provided courtesy of Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing and the US Department of Energy.

Site annotation displayed above contaminant plume and input data.

Color-filled contour map of elevations displayed, along with data, on top of a single faulted zone.

North Sea faulted turbitite channel model built in EarthVision, displayed with well and cellular data.

Quantitative visualization of 3D data from the North Sea showing seismic volume, wells, and cellular extraction.

Acid neutralization potential model.

Data of diverse types (water quality samples, USGS quad sheet, and water table contour map) have been integrated using EarthVision to produce this display of a tetrachloroethylene plume under an industrial site in Virginia.

Hurricane Ikes path and forecast uncertainty cones before entering the Gulf of Mexico. Colored spheres indicate wind speed in mph. Dark blue and magenta towers represent wind gusts and wave height, respectively.

The EarthVision Integrated Well Designer, an optional module for use with EarthVision, offers quick, robust, easy-to-use well planning for non-expert well planners within the context of their geologic, geophysical, and reservoir data. Working in the EarthVision Integrated Well Designer, users can identify and manage problem areas faster, shortening the cycle between geosciences and drilling, thereby maximizing returns on drilling investments.

This extract is part of a larger work:Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California, Edited by Allegra Hosford Scheirer.

by Michael P. Pantea & James C. Cole

by Skip Pack, Dynamic Graphics, Inc.

by Graham Brew, Dynamic Graphics, Inc.

by Foster, L., Aidoo, A., Tourqui, A., Castle-Smith, J., Mezdour, J., & Taylor, M.

by Donald D. Clarke & Christopher C. Phillips

by Moeck, Inga, Heinz-Gerd Holl, & Heinz Schandelmeier

by M.S. Miller, A. Gorbatov, & B.L.N Kennett

by Heinz-Gerd Holl, Moeck, Inga, & Heinz Schandelmeier

by Meghan S. Miller, & Brian L. N. Kennett

by Daniel J. Ponti, Kenneth D. Ehman, etc.

Prepared by: William H. Schneider Roy F. Weston, Inc., John G. Wrobel U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, etc.

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