Center for Additive Materials (CAM

Additive Manufacturing of High Strength Metal Alloys

Additive Manufacturing of Polymer-derived Ceramics

Self-Propagating Waveguide Processing of Architected Materials

Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Polymer Heat Exchangers

Center for Additive Materials (CAM)

The Center for Additive Materials (CAM) has been established by HRL Laboratories, LLC to accelerate the development of high performance materials for additive manufacturing processes. With the rapid introduction of additive processes into more and more industries, the portfolio of materials available for 3D printing plays a key role in defining the success of the additive manufacturing revolution. CAM is dedicated to broaden the property space accessible via additive manufacturing. Key focus areas include:

Processing innovations to enable 3D printing of established materials

Development of new metal alloys, ceramics and polymers tailored to specific additive processes

Quality control and material/part qualification through in-situ sensing and data analytics

HRL is uniquely positioned for a leadership role in the science and engineering of additive manufacturing: We are informed by the latest technological challenges of our LLC members (Boeing & GM) and our Government customers as we maintain strong ties with universities, national labs and other innovative companies.

The unique solidification conditions during metal additive manufacturing drastically limit the number of alloys that can be processed today.  This has hindered metal additive manufacturing from reaching its full potential to transform design and fabrication and disrupt multiple industries. HRL has developed a metallurgical approach to drastically expand the alloys amenable to processing with existing additive manufacturing hardware. Our approach is based on manipulating solidification mechanisms via functionalization of feedstock powders with nanoparticle nucleants selected using crystallographic informatics. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach by successfully selective laser melting aluminum alloy Al7075 and Al6061 powders resulting in crack-free, equiaxed, fine-grained microstructure and yield strength comparable to wrought material.

J.H. Martin et al. 3D Printing of High Strength Aluminum Alloys Nature 549, 365-369 (2017)

Thin-walled high temperature alloy structures fabricated from additively manufactured polymer templates Materials and Design 120 (2017)

Additive Manufacturing of Polymer-derived Ceramics

The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, 3D printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. HRL has developed preceramic resin systems that can be cured with ultraviolet light in commercially available stereolithography 3D printers or through a patterned mask. Polymer structures with complex shape can be formed and then pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide structures fabricated with this approach exhibit high strength and withstand temperatures up to 1700C.

Z.C. Eckel et al. Additive Manufacturing of Polymer-derived Ceramics Science 351 (2016)

J.M Hundley et al. Geometric Characterization of Additively Manufactured Polymer Derived Ceramics Additive Manufacturing 18, 95-102 (2017)

Self-Propagating Waveguide Processing of Architected Materials

HRL has developed a platform technology to rapidly and scalably manufacture architected lattice materials based on polymers, metals, and ceramics suitable for a variety of applications. Architected materials with periodic cellular structure exhibit unprecedented properties that cannot be achieved with conventional materials. A self-propagating polymer waveguide process invented at HRL is used to additively manufacture architected polymer lattice structures 100-1000x faster than conventional 3D printing approaches such as stereolithography. HRLs process is inherently scalable to large areas in addition to offering high throughput. HRL has developed photo polymer formulations for a broad range of applications including:

High strength and stiffness formulations for low-density sandwich panel cores

Viscoelastic formulations for padding and impact protection

Bio compatible formulations for biomedical and cellular scaffoldings

Dissolvable formulations for sacrificial templates essential for hollow microlattices

Preceramic formulations for polymer derived ceramic lattices and honeycombs

A.L. Corrion et al. Architected Microlattice Materials by Self-Propagating Waveguide Processing TechConnect Briefs 2017, Advanced Manufacturing Innovation, Chapter 10 p.359 (2017)

A.J. Jacobsen et al. Micro-scale Truss Structures formed from Self-Propagating Photopolymer Waveguides Advanced Materials 19 (2007)

J. A. Kolodziejska et al. Enabling ultra-thin lightweight structures: Microsandwich structures with microlattice cores APL Materials 3 (2015)

Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Polymer Heat Exchangers

C.S. Roper et al. Scalable 3D Bicontinuous Fluid Networks: Polymer Heat Exchangers Toward Artificial Organs Advanced Materials 27 (2015)

K. J. Maloney et al. Multifunctional heat exchangers derived from three-dimensional micro-lattice structures International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012)

Sandwich structures are unique enablers of lightweight design, as they offer an exceptional combination of low density and high bending rigidity. Lightweight sandwich structures are widespread in aerospace applications (e.g. winglets, flaps, rudders, rotor blades) but are also used in many other industries. State-of-the-art sandwich panels are created by attaching thin, stiff composite or aluminum alloy facesheets to thick, lightweight honeycomb or foam cores. HRL has developed advanced core materials based on hollow metallic truss structures that offer improved compressive and shear strengths versus honeycombs. Hollow truss structures are preferably fabricated by coating a polymer template of the truss structure, which is subsequently removed. This approach converts a 2D thin film or coating into a 3D cellular material, thereby redefining the applications of a range of thin film/coating materials.

T.A. Schaedler et al. Ultralight metallic microlattices Science 334 (2011)

E.C. Clough et al. Mechanical performance of hollow tetrahedral truss cores Int. J. of Solids and Structures 91 (2016)

T.A. Schaedler et al. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures JOM (2017)

Summer Intern in Additive Manufacturing

Additive Materials Co-op (Contract)

Click to show/hide the list of Publications

J.H. Martin, B.D. Yahata, J.M. Hundley, J.A. Mayer, T.A. Schaedler, T.M. Pollock

3D Printing of High-Strength Aluminium Alloys

J.M. Hundley, Z.C. Eckel, E. Schueller, K. Cante, S.M. Biesboer, B.D. Yahata, T.A. Schaedler

Geometric Characterization of Additively Manufactured Polymer Derived Ceramics

T.A. Schaedler, L.J. Chan, E.C. Clough, M.A. Stilke, J.M. Hundley, L.J. Masur

Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

Bauer, J; Meza, LR; Schaedler, TA; Schwaiger, R; Zheng, X; Valdevit, L;

Nanolattices-An Emerging Class of Mechanical Metamaterials

Erdeniz, Dinc; Schaedler, Tobias A; Dunand, David C;

Deposition-based synthesis of nickel-based superalloy microlattices

Faber, Katherine T; Schaedler, TA; et al;

The role of ceramic and glass science research in meeting societal challenges: Report from an NSFsponsored workshop

Journal of the American Ceramic Society

Martin, John H; Ashby, David S; Schaedler, Tobias A;

Thin-walled high temperature alloy structures fabricated from additively manufactured polymer templates

Clough, Eric C; Ensberg, Jie; Eckel, Zak C; Ro, Christopher J; Schaedler, Tobias A;

Mechanical performance of hollow tetrahedral truss cores

International Journal of Solids and Structures

Eckel, Zak C; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Schaedler, Tobias A;

Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

Schaedler, Tobias A; Carter, William B;

Annual Review of Materials Research

Cordes, Nikolaus L; Henderson, Kevin; Stannard, Tyler; Williams, Jason J; Xiao, Xianghui; Robinson, Mathew WC; Schaedler, Tobias A; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Patterson, Brian M;

Micro-scale X-ray Computed Tomography of Additively Manufactured Cellular Materials under Uniaxial Compression

Hundley, J. M., Clough, E. C., & Jacobsen, A. J.

The low velocity impact response of sandwich panels with lattice core reinforcement

International Journal of Impact Engineering

Kolodziejska, JA; Roper, CS; Yang, SS; Carter, WB; Jacobsen, AJ;

Research Update: Enabling ultra-thin lightweight structures: Microsandwich structures with microlattice cores

Roper, Christopher S; Schubert, Randall C; Maloney, Kevin J; Page, David; Ro, Christopher J; Yang, Sophia S; Jacobsen, Alan J;

Scalable 3D bicontinuous fluid networks: Polymer heat exchangers toward artificial organs

Liu, Yilun; Schaedler, Tobias A; Chen, Xi;

Dynamic energy absorption characteristics of hollow microlattice structures

Liu, Yilun; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Chen, Xi;

Quasi-static energy absorption of hollow microlattice structures

Liu, Yilun; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Lu, Weiyi; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Xi;

Quasi-static crush behavior of hollow microtruss filled with NMF liquid

Rys, Jan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Greer, Julia R;

Fabrication and Deformation of Metallic Glass MicroLattices

Salari-Sharif, Ladan; Schaedler, Tobias A; Valdevit, Lorenzo;

Energy dissipation mechanisms in hollow metallic microlattices

Schaedler, Tobias A; Ro, Christopher J; Sorensen, Adam E; Eckel, Zak; Yang, Sophia S; Carter, William B; Jacobsen, Alan J;

Designing metallic microlattices for energy absorber applications

Maloney, Kevin J; Roper, Christopher S; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A;

Microlattices as architected thin films: Analysis of mechanical properties and high strain elastic recovery

Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, Wiliam B;

Valdevit, Lorenzo; Godfrey, Scott W; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Carter, William B;

Compressive strength of hollow microlattices: Experimental characterization, modeling, and optimal design

Yin, S., Jacobsen, A. J., Wu, L., & Nutt, S. R.

Inertial stabilization of flexible polymer micro-lattice materials

Bernal Ostos, J.; Rinaldi, R.G.; Hammetter, C.I.; Stucky, G.D., Zok, F.W., Jacobsen, A.J.

Deformation stabilization of lattice structures via foam addition

Doty, R. E., Kolodziejska, J. A. and Jacobsen, A. J.

Hierarchical Polymer Microlattice Structures

Maloney, Kevin J; Fink, Kathryn D; Schaedler, Tobias A; Kolodziejska, Joanna A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Roper, Christopher S;

Multifunctional heat exchangers derived from three-dimensional micro-lattice structures

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

Roper, Christopher S.; Fink, Kathryn D.; Lee, Samuel T.; Kolodziejska, Joanna A.; Jacobsen, Alan J.

Anisotropic convective heat transfer in microlattice materials

Torrents, A; Schaedler, TA; Jacobsen, AJ; Carter, WB; Valdevit, L;

Characterization of nickel-based microlattice materials with structural hierarchy from the nanometer to the millimeter scale

Fink, Kathryn D; Kolodziejska, Joanna A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Roper, Christopher S;

Fluid dynamics of flow through microscale lattice structures formed from selfpropagating photopolymer waveguides

Jacobsen, A. J., Mahoney, S., Carter, W. B., & Nutt, S.

Vitreous carbon micro-lattice structures

Lian, Jie; Jang, Dongchan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; B. Carter, William; Greer, Julia R;

Catastrophic vs gradual collapse of thin-walled nanocrystalline Ni hollow cylinders as building blocks of microlattice structures

Multiobjective optimization for design of multifunctional sandwich panel heat pipes with micro-architected truss cores

International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; Torrents, Anna; Sorensen, Adam E; Lian, Jie; Greer, Julia R; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Carter, Wiliam B;

Valdevit, L., Jacobsen, A. J., Greer, J. R. and Carter, W. B.

Protocols for the Optimal Design of Multi-Functional Cellular Structures: From Hypersonics to Micro-Architected Materials.

Journal of the American Ceramic Society

Evans, A. G., M. Y. He, V. S. Deshpande, John W. Hutchinson, A. J. Jacobsen, and W. Barvosa-Carter

Concepts for Enhanced Energy Absorption Using Hollow

International Journal of Impact Engineering

Jacobsen, A. J., Barvosa-Carter, W., & Nutt, S.

Shear behavior of polymer micro-scale truss structures formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

Jacobsen, A. J., Barvosa-Carter, W., & Nutt, S.

Micro-scale truss structures with three-fold and six-fold symmetry formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

Jacobsen, A. J., Barvosa-Carter, W., & Nutt, S.

Micro-scale truss structures formed from self-propagating photopolymer waveguides

Jacobsen, A. J., Barvosa-Carter, W., & Nutt, S.

Compression behavior of micro-scale truss structures formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

HRL Laboratories Wins RD 100 Award

HRL Laboratories Establishes Center for Additive Materials

Metallurgy Breakthrough: HRL Engineers 3D Print High-Strength Aluminum, Solve Ages-Old Welding Problem Using Nanoparticles

HRL High-Temperature Ceramics 3D-Printing Technology Selected as RD 100 Finalist

HRL Receives NASA Award to 3D Print Ceramic Rocket Engine Components

HRL Laboratories Achieves Guinness World Record for Lightest Metal

Breakthrough achieved in Ceramics 3D Printing Technology

Game Changing Space Travel: HRL is Developing Ultralight Materials for Future Aerospace Vehicles and Structures

Lightweight Sandwich Structures Lay the Groundwork for Micro-Drones

HRL Laboratories Ultrathin Heat Exchangers Could Pave the Way for Artificial Organs

09/25/20173-D Printers Make Aluminum Pieces Without Cracks

09/20/2017HRL 3D Prints High-Strength Aluminum Solving Ages-Old Welding Problem Using Nanoparticles

04/19/2016New 3-D Printing Technique Makes Ceramic Parts

01/22/20163D-Printed High-Temperature Ceramics

12/31/20153D-Printed Wonder Ceramics Are Flawless And Super-Strong

03/22/2012Engineers Concoct the Worlds Lightest Material

01/01/2012Building Ultralight Lattices

11/23/2011Check Out the Worlds Lightest Material

11/18/2011Worlds lightest material unveiled by US engineers

Workshop: New Materials for Additive Manufacturing

Director, Center for Additive Materials