Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

. Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore 637662, Singapore

. School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD) for the selective laser melting (SLM) process is typically in the range from 15 m to 63 m. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s(50 g)-1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Jun Wei

Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Zhiguang Zhu, et al. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 695 -700 .

Tab.1 Chemical composition of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.

Tab.2 PSD and Hall flow rate of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.

Fig.1 Cross-section of virgin and recycled Inconel powders.

Fig.2 PSD and surface morphology of virgin and recycled Inconel powders.

Tab.3 Rheological results of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.

Fig.3 The results of rheological tests for virgin and recycled IN718 powders. (a) Stability and variable flow rate (VFR) test; (b) CPS test; (c) shear test; (d) wall friction test.

Fig.4 A propeller printed using EOS-M400 machine.

Fig.5 Typical microstructure of IN 718. (a) 3D view; (b) higher magnification showing column structure in

Tab.4 Results of apparent, tapped, and true densities, and packing capability of virgin and recycled IN718 powders.

Tab.5 Mechanical properties of parts printed using the virgin and recycled Inconel powder.

Kulawik K, Buffat PA, Kruk A, Wusatowska-Sarnek AM, Czyrska-Filemonowicz A. Imaging and characterization of and nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by EDX elemental mapping and FIBSEM tomography. Mater Charact 2015;100:7480

Chlebus E, Gruber K, Kunicka B, Kurzac J, Kurzynowski T. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 processed by selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2015;639:64755

Lundstrm E, Simonsson K, Gustafsson D, Mnsson T. A load history dependent model for fatigue crack propagation in Inconel 718 under hold time conditions. Eng Fract Mech 2014;118:1730

Jia QB, Gu DD. Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 superalloy parts: Densification, microstructure and properties. J Alloys Compd 2014;585:71321

Trosch T, Strner J, Vlkl R, Glatzel U. Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Inconel 718 compared to forging and casting. Mater Lett 2016;164:42831

Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, et al.Design for additive manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP AnnManuf Techn 2016;65(2):73760

Sadowski M, Ladani L, Brindley W, Romano J. Optimizing quality of additively manufactured Inconel 718 using powder bed laser melting process. Addit Manuf 2016;11:6070

Herzog D, Seyda V, Wycisk E, Emmelmann C. Additive manufacturing of metals. Acta Mater 2016;117:37192

Helmer H, Bauerei A, Singer RF, Krner C. Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2016;668:1807

Fox JC, Moylan SP, Lane BM. Effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of overhanging structures in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. Procedia CIRP 2016;45:1314

Strner J, Terock M, Glatzel U. Mechanical and microstructural investigation of nickel-based superalloy IN718 manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). Adv Eng Mater 2015;17(8):1099105

Carter LN, Martin C, Withers PJ, Attallah MM. The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy. J Alloys Compd 2014;615:33847

Appleyard D. Powering up on powder technology. Met Powder Rep 2015;70(6):2859

Frazier WE. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J Mater Eng Perform 2014;23(6):191728

Raghavan S, Zhang BC, Wang P, Sun CN, Nai MLS, Li T, et al.Effect of different heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties in selective laser melted INCONEL 718 alloy. Mater Manuf Processes 2017;32(14):158895

Dawes J, Bowerman R, Trepleton R. Introduction to the additive manufacturing powder metallurgy supply chain. Johnson Matthey Technol Rev 2015;59(3):24356

Spierings AB, Herres N, Levy G. Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality and mechanical properties in AM steel parts. Rapid Prototyping J 2011;17(3):195202

Clayton J. Optimising metal powders for additive manufacturing. Met Powder Rep 2014;69(5):147

Freeman R. Measuring the flow properties of consolidated, conditioned and aerated powdersA comparative study using a powder rheometer and a rotational shear cell. Powder Technol 2007;174(12):2533

Strondl A, Lyckfeldt O, Brodin H, Ackelid U. Characterization and control of powder properties for additive manufacturing. JOM 2015;67(3):54954

Karapatis NP, Egger G, Gygax PE, Glardon R. Optimization of powder layer density in selective laser sintering. In: Proceedings of 10th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium; 1999Aug 911; Austin, USA; 1999. p. 25563.

German RM. Particle packing characteristics. New Jersey: Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton; 1989.

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A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion

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Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Electron Beam Selective Melting Process

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A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 675 -684 .

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Amelia Yilin Lee,Jia An,Chee Kai Chua.

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[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 663 -674 .

Anders Clausen, Niels Aage, Ole Sigmund.

Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load

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Jun Yang,Yang Yang,Zhizhu He,Bowei Chen,Jing Liu.

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[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(4): 506 -512 .

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Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 261 -268 .

Research and Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Advanced USC Power Plants with Steam Temperatures of 700 C and Above

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 211 -224 .

Dual-Material Electron Beam Selective Melting: Hardware Development and Validation Studies

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 124 -130 .

Bingheng Lu, Dichen Li, Xiaoyong Tian.

Development Trends in Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 85 -89 .

In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD) for the selective laser melting (SLM) process is typically in the range from 15 m to 63 m. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s(50 g)-1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Jun Wei

Quy Bau Nguyen,Mui Ling Sharon Nai,Zhiguang Zhu, et al. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 695 -700 .

Kulawik K, Buffat PA, Kruk A, Wusatowska-Sarnek AM, Czyrska-Filemonowicz A. Imaging and characterization of and nanoparticles in Inconel 718 by EDX elemental mapping and FIBSEM tomography. Mater Charact 2015;100:7480

Chlebus E, Gruber K, Kunicka B, Kurzac J, Kurzynowski T. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Inconel 718 processed by selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2015;639:64755

Lundstrm E, Simonsson K, Gustafsson D, Mnsson T. A load history dependent model for fatigue crack propagation in Inconel 718 under hold time conditions. Eng Fract Mech 2014;118:1730

Jia QB, Gu DD. Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 superalloy parts: Densification, microstructure and properties. J Alloys Compd 2014;585:71321

Trosch T, Strner J, Vlkl R, Glatzel U. Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Inconel 718 compared to forging and casting. Mater Lett 2016;164:42831

Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, et al.Design for additive manufacturing: Trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP AnnManuf Techn 2016;65(2):73760

Sadowski M, Ladani L, Brindley W, Romano J. Optimizing quality of additively manufactured Inconel 718 using powder bed laser melting process. Addit Manuf 2016;11:6070

Herzog D, Seyda V, Wycisk E, Emmelmann C. Additive manufacturing of metals. Acta Mater 2016;117:37192

Helmer H, Bauerei A, Singer RF, Krner C. Grain structure evolution in Inconel 718 during selective electron beam melting. Mater Sci Eng A 2016;668:1807

Fox JC, Moylan SP, Lane BM. Effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of overhanging structures in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. Procedia CIRP 2016;45:1314

Strner J, Terock M, Glatzel U. Mechanical and microstructural investigation of nickel-based superalloy IN718 manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). Adv Eng Mater 2015;17(8):1099105

Carter LN, Martin C, Withers PJ, Attallah MM. The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy. J Alloys Compd 2014;615:33847

Appleyard D. Powering up on powder technology. Met Powder Rep 2015;70(6):2859

Frazier WE. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J Mater Eng Perform 2014;23(6):191728

Raghavan S, Zhang BC, Wang P, Sun CN, Nai MLS, Li T, et al.Effect of different heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties in selective laser melted INCONEL 718 alloy. Mater Manuf Processes 2017;32(14):158895

Dawes J, Bowerman R, Trepleton R. Introduction to the additive manufacturing powder metallurgy supply chain. Johnson Matthey Technol Rev 2015;59(3):24356

Spierings AB, Herres N, Levy G. Influence of the particle size distribution on surface quality and mechanical properties in AM steel parts. Rapid Prototyping J 2011;17(3):195202

Clayton J. Optimising metal powders for additive manufacturing. Met Powder Rep 2014;69(5):147

Freeman R. Measuring the flow properties of consolidated, conditioned and aerated powdersA comparative study using a powder rheometer and a rotational shear cell. Powder Technol 2007;174(12):2533

Strondl A, Lyckfeldt O, Brodin H, Ackelid U. Characterization and control of powder properties for additive manufacturing. JOM 2015;67(3):54954

Karapatis NP, Egger G, Gygax PE, Glardon R. Optimization of powder layer density in selective laser sintering. In: Proceedings of 10th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium; 1999Aug 911; Austin, USA; 1999. p. 25563.

German RM. Particle packing characteristics. New Jersey: Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton; 1989.

Additive Design and Manufacturing of Jet Engine Parts

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 648 -652 .

Patcharapit Promoppatum,Shi-Chune Yao,P. Chris Pistorius,Anthony D. Rollett.

A Comprehensive Comparison of the Analytical and Numerical Prediction of the Thermal History and Solidification Microstructure of Inconel 718 Products Made by Laser Powder-Bed Fusion

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 685 -694 .

Wentao Yan,Ya Qian,Weixin Ma,Bin Zhou,Yongxing Shen,Feng Lin.

Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Electron Beam Selective Melting Process

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 701 -707 .

Dongdong Gu,Chenglong Ma,Mujian Xia,Donghua Dai,Qimin Shi.

A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 675 -684 .

A Large Range Flexure-Based Servo System Supporting Precision Additive Manufacturing

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 708 -715 .

Amelia Yilin Lee,Jia An,Chee Kai Chua.

Two-Way 4D Printing: A Review on the Reversibility of 3D-Printed Shape Memory Materials

[J]. Engineering, 2017, 3(5): 663 -674 .

Anders Clausen, Niels Aage, Ole Sigmund.

Exploiting Additive Manufacturing Infill in Topology Optimization for Improved Buckling Load

[J]. Engineering, 2016, 2(2): 250 -257 .

Jun Yang,Yang Yang,Zhizhu He,Bowei Chen,Jing Liu.

A Personal Desktop Liquid-Metal Printer as a Pervasive Electronics Manufacturing Tool for Society in the Near Future

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(4): 506 -512 .

Jia An, Joanne Ee Mei Teoh, Ratima Suntornnond, Chee Kai Chua.

Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 261 -268 .

Research and Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Advanced USC Power Plants with Steam Temperatures of 700 C and Above

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(2): 211 -224 .

Dual-Material Electron Beam Selective Melting: Hardware Development and Validation Studies

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 124 -130 .

Bingheng Lu, Dichen Li, Xiaoyong Tian.

Development Trends in Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing

[J]. Engineering, 2015, 1(1): 85 -89 .